The name Dao de jia - "School of the Tao-te". Taoism - is one of the main lines of ancient Chinese philosophy and the national religion of China. Taoism originated in the 2 nd half of I millennium BC. E. chzhouskom in China almost simultaneously with the teachings of Confucius. According to tradition, is considered the founder of Taoism Lao-Tzu (Li Er, Lao Dan, Li Boyan, Lao Lao-Tzu, born. In 604 BC. E.), But its most important thinker was Chuang-Tzu (369-286 gg . BC. e.).
The doctrine of Taoism is contained in the treatises named after these thinkers (treatise "Lao Tzu" better known as the "Tao Te Ching"). Currently, most scientists came to the conclusion that the treatise "Chuang Tzu" appeared about 300 BC. E., About the same time as "Lao-Tzu, and therefore the dating of the emergence of Taoism is shifting from the VI-V cc. BC. e. (as previously) to IV-III centuries. BC. e.
Concept of Yin and Yang are also often associated with the name of Lao-Tzu, but in fact it was created and actively used, at least 4800 years ago, ie, for several millennia before Lao Tzu and his famous work "Dao De Jin", setting forth the principles of Taoism. The initial idea of the philosophy of Taoism is the doctrine of the Tao ( "Way") - the primary basis and laws of existence of all things. Tao is both the substance-based, and the eternal, natural and universal law of the spontaneous emergence and development of the universe, man and society.
How mysterious the integrity of the universe, the Tao is present in everything, but does not exhaust the unit, not the knowledge of reason and can not be expressed in words. Tao is also seen as generating the beginning of all things - "mother" Celestial, and serves a synonym of a single world - Yes Qui ( "Great room"). Tao is inherent in the good force de ( "virtue"), through which it manifests itself in the world, with the final form of this expression (subjects) are considered as the embodiment or design of the Tao.
The leading Taoist concepts include the principles of Tzu-Ran (samoestestvennost, spontaneity) and U-Wei (inaction). The first one literally means "that by itself (tzu) is such, what it is (Ran). In this case that the Tao is absolutely free, nor on anything else and should not depend only its own nature. Hence the principle of following the Tao, ie, behavior that is consistent in the microcosm with the Tao (natural) rights, and in the macrocosm - the universe with Tao. The wise man should not be based on your own subjective desires and passions limited, to counteract the nature around him things and phenomena.
On the contrary, he should "follow the things" (shun y). All things equal, therefore, a true sage is free from bias and prejudice: he looks at the same noble and slave, connects with eternity and the universe and do not be sad nor life, nor death, to understand their natural and inevitable. On the other hand, the wise man can, using their comprehension of the nature of a thing, to put it into his service as a "go with the flow in the right direction."
Comprehension of the nature of things and consistency with it allows "soft solid win" and "strong conquer the weak." Principles Zi-Ran and Wu-Wei became an important source of methodological and philosophical foundations of the Chinese system of mind-body workout, are applied, including in the military and martial arts (Wushu and many others). Any such action is contrary to the Tao means a waste of energy and leads to failure and death.
Universe can not be put in order to artificially - to determine, in its harmony and order must be given the freedom of its innate qualities. Accordingly, the wise ruler who follows Tao does nothing to control the country, and then it thrives, abiding in peace and harmony. Another very significant for the concept of Taoism is the category of "air" or "ether" - qi. Under Qi understand the original pervosubstantsiya, from which a sort of "is" all that exists. Condensing and coarsened, Qi is the substance, refining - in spirit.
In the intermediate state of Qi is the vital energy and strength, dissolved and absorbed in the nature of man with breathing. This life force circulates and along channels (jing) in the human body. Its accumulation and proper circulation in the body - one of the most important tasks of Taoist breathing and gymnastic exercises underlying the different systems of Qi Gong ( "work with the qi"). Original Qi (Yuan Qi) is simple and vnekachestvenno, but in the process of generation of the Universe as it would be polarized and differentiated.
Two important cosmological state unified Qi - is the Yin and Yang (Yin-Qi and Yang Qi) - ie female, calm, cold, dark, soft on the one hand, and masculine, movement, warm, bright, solid - with the other. These two states are in absolute harmony and mutual transitions. The idea of harmony between these complementary and rooted in each other opposites was embodied in the notion of Taoism, Tai-Chi ( "The Great Limit").
Elements of mysticism and irrationalism, contained in the teachings of Taoist, gradually led to the division of Taoism in II-III centuries. Mr. e. the philosophical (Dao Jia), further developed in neodaosizme (Ho Yan, Wang Bi, Ji Kang, Xiang Xu, Guo Xiang, and other philosophers), and religious (Dao Jiao).