Confucianism, Zhu Jia (School of scientists scribes ") - is the ethical-political and philosophical doctrine, and then one of the major philosophical and religious movements in China, along with Taoism and Buddhism. The main provisions of Confucianism were developed philosopher Kung-tzu (Kun Qiu, Kun Chung, Kung Fu-tzu - hence the Latinized Confucius - Confucius, 551 - 479 years. BC. E.) And described in his treatise Lun Yu ( "Conversations and judgments ").
Then the ideas of Confucius have been developed and revised by his followers - Mencius, Xun Zi, Tung Chung-shu, Chu Hsi and other philosophers. While the interests of the hereditary aristocracy, Confucianism has announced the power of the ruler (monarch) sacred granted by heaven, and the division of people into higher and lower ( "noble men" and "small fellows") - a universal law of justice.
The basis of social order, Confucianism placed a moral self-improvement and adherence to etiquette ( "Do"). CO 2. BC. e. until Xinhai Revolution 1911-1913 Confucianism was the official state ideology. Confucianism - is primarily for esoteric doctrine, that is for "external": for ordinary people, not scientists.
Confucius himself stressed that it appeals to all without distinction as to age, social status and educational level. Confucian predecessors came from the hereditary officials' families in case of loss of official position became itinerant philosophers and teachers, earn a living teaching of ancient books: "Shitszin", "Shutszin", "Litszi" who were then part of the Confucian canon (Trinadtsatiknizhiya " ), and subsequently lost "Yuetszin" ( "Book on Music").
In the Spring and Autumn Period (722-481 gg. BC. E.) Such itinerant philosophers were especially numerous in the kingdoms of Lu (birthplace of Confucius) and Zou (birthplace of Mencius) - on the territory of the modern province of Shandong. Therefore, it is there and Confucianism originated.